Objective: Hospitalizations associated with energy drinks have increased in the past decade. Whereas energy drinks are suspected to cause hemodynamic effects, the magnitude of risk remains controversial. We evaluated the effects of acute energy drink consumption on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR).
Data sources: A search in PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane database through December 31, 2015, was performed.
Study selection and data extraction: Prospective clinical studies assessing the effects of commercially available energy drinks on BP and HR were included. A weighted mean change from baseline was calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model for all end points.
Data synthesis: In all, 15 studies were included, encompassing a total of 340, 322, and 340 individuals for SBP, DBP, and HR, respectively. SBP and DBP increased significantly by 4.44 mm Hg (95% CI = 2.71 to 6.17; Cochrane Q P = 0.001) and 2.73 mm Hg (95% CI = 1.52 to 3.95; Cochrane Q P = 0.050), respectively. HR changed nonsignificantly by 0.80 beats per minute (95% CI = -1.26 to 2.87; Cochrane Q P < 0.001). The largest change in SBP was seen with drinks administering ≥200 mg of caffeine (6.44 mm Hg, 95% CI = 4.62 to 8.27).
Conclusions: Our results indicate that acute consumption of caffeinated energy drinks significantly raises SBP and DBP. Further investigation of the ingredients in energy drinks and the impact of chronic energy drink consumption is warranted.
Keywords: complementary medicine; hemodynamics; hypertension; meta-analysis; nutrition.
© The Author(s) 2016.