The number and severity of diseases affecting human lung development and adult respiratory function has stimulated great interest in new in vitro models to study the human lung. This review summarizes the most recent breakthroughs deriving lung lineages in a dish by directing the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. A variety of culturing platforms have been developed, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional (organoid) culture platforms, to derive specific cell types and structures of the lung. These stem cell-derived lung models will further our understanding of human lung development, disease, and regeneration.
Keywords: Airway; Alveoli; Directed differentiation; Human pluripotent stem cell; Lung development; Organoid.