Contrast Utilization During Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From a Contemporary Multicenter Registry

J Invasive Cardiol. 2016 Jul;28(7):288-94.


Background: Administration of a large amount of contrast volume during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may lead to contrast-induced nephropathy.

Methods: We examined the association of clinical, angiographic and procedural variables with contrast volume administered during 1330 CTO-PCI procedures performed at 12 experienced United States centers.

Results: Technical and procedural success was 90% and 88%, respectively, and mean contrast volume was 289 ± 138 mL. Approximately 33% of patients received >320 mL of contrast (high contrast utilization group). On univariable analysis, male gender (P=.01), smoking (P=.01), prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (P=.04), moderate or severe calcification (P=.01), moderate or severe tortuosity (P=.04), proximal cap ambiguity (P=.01), distal cap at a bifurcation (P<.001), side branch at the proximal cap (P<.001), blunt/no stump (P=.01), occlusion length (P<.001), higher J-CTO score (P=.02), use of antegrade dissection and reentry or retrograde approach (P<.001), ad hoc CTO-PCI (P=.04), dual arterial access (P<.001), and 8 Fr guide catheters (P<.001) were associated with higher contrast volume; conversely, diabetes mellitus (P=.01) and in-stent restenosis (P=.01) were associated with lower contrast volume. On multivariable analysis, moderate/severe calcification (P=.04), distal cap at a bifurcation (P<.001), ad hoc CTO-PCI (P<.001), dual arterial access (P=.01), 8 Fr guide catheters (P=.02), and use of antegrade dissection/reentry or the retrograde approach (P<.001) were independently associated with higher contrast use, whereas diabetes (P=.02), larger target vessel diameter (P=.03), and presence of "interventional" collaterals (P<.001) were associated with lower contrast utilization.

Conclusions: Several baseline clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics are associated with higher contrast volume administration during CTO-PCI.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Contrast Media / adverse effects*
  • Coronary Angiography* / adverse effects
  • Coronary Angiography* / methods
  • Coronary Occlusion* / diagnosis
  • Coronary Occlusion* / surgery
  • Drug Utilization Review* / methods
  • Drug Utilization Review* / statistics & numerical data
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions* / diagnosis
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions* / epidemiology
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions* / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intraoperative Care / methods
  • Intraoperative Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Kidney Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Kidney Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases* / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / methods*
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Contrast Media