Bile: miRNA pattern and protein-based biomarkers may predict acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation

Biomarkers. 2017 Feb;22(1):19-27. doi: 10.1080/1354750X.2016.1201538. Epub 2016 Aug 5.


Context: Bile rather than blood depicts the local inflammation in the liver and may improve prediction and diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) after liver transplantation (OLT).

Methods: Secretome and miRNAs were analyzed during the first two weeks and on clinical suspicion of ACR in the bile of 45 OLT recipients.

Results: Levels of CD44, CXCL9, miR-122, miR-133a, miR-148a and miR-194 were significantly higher in bile of patients who developed ACR within the first 6 months after OLT and during ACR.

Conclusion: Analysis of secretome and miRNA in bile could improve our understanding of the local inflammatory process during rejection.

Keywords: Immunosuppression; personalized medicine; risk stratification.

MeSH terms

  • Bile / chemistry*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Bodily Secretions / chemistry
  • Graft Rejection / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • MicroRNAs / analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Proteins / analysis


  • Biomarkers
  • MicroRNAs
  • Proteins