Replication-Competent Influenza A Viruses Expressing Reporter Genes

Viruses. 2016 Jun 23;8(7):179. doi: 10.3390/v8070179.


Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause annual seasonal human respiratory disease epidemics. In addition, IAV have been implicated in occasional pandemics with inordinate health and economic consequences. Studying IAV, in vitro or in vivo, requires the use of laborious secondary methodologies to identify virus-infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, replication-competent IAV expressing an easily traceable reporter protein can be used. Here we discuss the development and applications of recombinant replication-competent IAV harboring diverse fluorescent or bioluminescent reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome. These viruses have been employed for in vitro and in vivo studies, such as the screening of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral compounds, the identification of host factors involved in viral replication, cell tropism, the development of vaccines, or the assessment of viral infection dynamics. In summary, reporter-expressing, replicating-competent IAV represent a powerful tool for the study of IAV both in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: fluorescence; luminescence; plasmid-based reverse genetics; recombinant influenza A virus; replicating-competent reporter-expressing influenza A virus; reporter genes; virus rescue approaches.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Gene Expression*
  • Genes, Reporter*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / physiology*
  • Luminescent Proteins / analysis
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Reverse Genetics
  • Staining and Labeling / methods*
  • Virology / methods
  • Virus Replication*


  • Luminescent Proteins