Prognostic role of stress echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The International Stress Echo Registry

Int J Cardiol. 2016 Sep 15;219:331-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.06.044. Epub 2016 Jun 15.


Background: Stress echo (SE) may have a role in the outcome in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Objectives: The aim was to assess the prognostic value of SE in a retrospective multicenter study in HCM.

Methods: We enrolled 706 HCM patients. The employed stress was exercise (n=608) and/or vasodilator (n=146, dipyridamole in 98 and adenosine in 48). We defined SE positivity according to clinical/hemodynamic criteria including: symptoms (all stress modalities), exercise-induced hypotension (failure to increase or fall >20mmHg, exercise) and exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (left ventricular outflow tract obstruction >50mmHg); and ischemic criteria, such as new wall motion abnormalities (new wall motion abnormality) and/or reduction of coronary flow reserve velocity (CFVR≤2.0) on left anterior descending coronary artery with vasodilator stress assessed in 116 patients. All patients completed the clinical follow-up.

Results: Positive SE showed more frequently CFVR reduction, exercise-induced hypotension, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and symptoms (38, 23, 20 and 15% respectively), but new wall motion abnormality only in 6%. During a median follow-up of 49months 180 events were observed, including 40 deaths. Clinical/hemodynamic criteria did not predict outcome (X2 0.599, p=0.598), whereas ischemia-related SE criteria (X2: 111.120, p<0.0001) was significantly related to outcome. Similarly, mortality was predicted with SE ischemic-criteria (X2 16.645, p<0.0001).

Conclusions: SE has an important prognostic significance in HCM patients, with ischemia-related end-points showing greater predictive accuracy than hemodynamic endpoints. New wall motion abnormalities and impairment of CFVR should be specifically included in SE protocols for HCM.

Keywords: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Stress echocardiography.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic / epidemiology*
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic / physiopathology
  • Echocardiography, Stress / methods*
  • Exercise Test / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Internationality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Registries*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage


  • Vasodilator Agents