Whole genome sequences of Japanese porcine species C rotaviruses reveal a high diversity of genotypes of individual genes and will contribute to a comprehensive, generally accepted classification system

Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Oct:44:106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.041. Epub 2016 Jun 25.


Porcine rotavirus C (RVC) is distributed throughout the world and is thought to be a pathogenic agent of diarrhea in piglets. Although, the VP7, VP4, and VP6 gene sequences of Japanese porcine RVCs are currently available, there is no whole-genome sequence data of Japanese RVC. Furthermore, only one to three sequences are available for porcine RVC VP1-VP3 and NSP1-NSP3 genes. Therefore, we determined nearly full-length whole-genome sequences of nine Japanese porcine RVCs from seven piglets with diarrhea and two healthy pigs and compared them with published RVC sequences from a database. The VP7 genes of two Japanese RVCs from healthy pigs were highly divergent from other known RVC strains and were provisionally classified as G12 and G13 based on the 86% nucleotide identity cut-off value. Pairwise sequence identity calculations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that candidate novel genotypes of porcine Japanese RVC were identified in the NSP1, NSP2 and NSP3 encoding genes, respectively. Furthermore, VP3 of Japanese porcine RVCs was shown to be closely related to human RVCs, suggesting a gene reassortment event between porcine and human RVCs and past interspecies transmission. The present study demonstrated that porcine RVCs show greater genetic diversity among strains than human and bovine RVCs.

Keywords: Candidate novel genotypes; Interspecies transmission; Japan; Porcine rotavirus C; Whole genome analyses.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics
  • Capsid Proteins / genetics
  • Diarrhea / veterinary
  • Diarrhea / virology
  • Feces / virology
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Genome, Viral
  • Genotype
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Japan
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Rotavirus / genetics*
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification
  • Rotavirus / pathogenicity
  • Rotavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Rotavirus Infections / veterinary*
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / virology*
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Capsid Proteins
  • NSP3 protein, Rotavirus
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • VP3 protein, Rotavirus
  • VP7 protein, Rotavirus
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins
  • nsp1 protein, Rotavirus
  • NS35 protein, rotavirus