Background: Previous studies have evaluated recurrent coarctation after the Norwood procedure (NP) in patients with single-ventricle (SV) anatomy. Extended patch augmentation of the aorta, a Norwood-type arch reconstruction (NTAR), is also used in patients with 2 ventricles and a diffusely hypoplastic arch; however, outcomes after NTAR in these patients are not well described.
Methods: A retrospective review was performed of neonates with SV and 2-ventricle (2V) anatomy who underwent an NP or NTAR at our institution from 2000 to 2010. The incidence of recurrent coarctation requiring intervention and associated risk factors were evaluated.
Results: Overall, 101 patients with 2V anatomy and 361 patients with SV anatomy were included. Eighteen patients with 2V anatomy (17.8%) and 35 patients with SV anatomy (9.7%) required intervention for recurrent coarctation at a median of 0.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 0.3-1.2 years) after the initial operation. Independent risk factors associated with recurrent coarctation in patients with 2V anatomy included weight less than 2.5 kg (hazard ratio [HR], 6.05; p = 0.001) and peak aortic arch gradient (PAAG) on the discharge echocardiogram greater than 10 mm Hg (HR, 3.07; p = 0.03). In patients with SV anatomy, shunt type (HR, 6.42; p < 0.0001 for right ventricle to pulmonary artery [RV-PA] shunt compared with others) and peak gradient on the discharge echocardiogram greater than 10 mm Hg were found to be significant (HR, 7.40; p < 0.0001). There was no survival difference in patients with and those without recurrent coarctation.
Conclusions: Recurrent coarctation is common after NTAR. Small patient size and shunt type were found to be independent risk factors for recurrent coarctation in the 2V and SV populations, respectively, and discharge aortic arch gradient was a significant risk factor in both populations.
Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.