The twin epidemic of obesity and diabetes is a major crisis globally. Several epidemiologic studies reveal the parallel escalation of obesity and diabetes. The term 'diabesity' expresses their close relationship to each other, wherein both these metabolic disorders are characterized by defects of insulin action. The pathophysiology connecting obesity and diabetes is chiefly attributed to two factors: insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Recent years have seen an increasing body of work on the following metabolic defects common to both obesity and diabetes such as, impaired tissue perfusion, sleep disturbances, androgen dysfunction, altered Vitamin D levels and GI stress. The scope of this review is to present the most widely accepted theories that link the two diseases, provide an update on some proposed unifying metabolic defects and highlight current and future prevention and management strategies.
Keywords: Hormonal dysfunction; Inflammation; Metabolic defects; Perfusion; Sleep disturbances.
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