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Review
, 137 (3), 162-172

Critical Review of Bariatric Surgery, Medically Supervised Diets, and Behavioural Interventions for Weight Management in Adults

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Review

Critical Review of Bariatric Surgery, Medically Supervised Diets, and Behavioural Interventions for Weight Management in Adults

Julie Beaulac et al. Perspect Public Health.

Abstract

Aims: Patient selection of weight management treatment option is often guided by a variety of factors. Currently, there is no comprehensive tool to facilitate informed decision-making for patients and clinicians. This article aims to synthesise evidence on the treatment effectiveness, health benefits, risks, and patient experiences of treatment options presently available at the Weight Management Clinic at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH), as a first step towards developing a decision aid.

Methods: Narrative and systematic reviews published in English between 1999 and 2014 were included that focused on one or more of the following weight management treatments in adults aged 18 years and over: roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), medically supervised meal replacement, and behavioural or lifestyle intervention.

Results: Overall, bariatric surgeries have received the greatest research attention and have been associated not only with greater weight loss and health benefit but also with greater risks, complications, and financial cost. Dietary programmes demonstrated weight loss and health benefits to a lesser extent than with surgery but were associated with lower and shorter-term risks and complications. Behavioural and lifestyle interventions have been studied less yet have shown significant, albeit small, weight loss outcomes alone and in combination with dietary or surgical options; they also appear to be the lowest risk interventions. Patient experiences of weight management options are mixed and not well understood.

Conclusion: Further research is needed; however, this review identified some general trends related to weight loss outcomes, benefits, risks, and barriers for weight management options that have implications for shared treatment decision-making.

Keywords: review; shared decision-making; treatment; weight management.

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