Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression

Anticancer Res. 2016 Jul;36(7):3687-92.


Background/aim: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1.

Materials and methods: The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.

Results: IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05).

Conclusion: An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine.

Keywords: FGF-7; Pantoea agglomerans; VEGF; dermal papilla cell; hair loss.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Epidermal Cells
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • Hair / growth & development*
  • Humans
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Middle Aged
  • Pantoea / chemistry


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • lipopolysaccharide IP-PA1, Pantoea agglomerans