Prevalence of bony septa, antral pathology, and dimensions of the maxillary sinus from a sinus augmentation perspective: A retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study

Imaging Sci Dent. 2016 Jun;46(2):109-15. doi: 10.5624/isd.2016.46.2.109. Epub 2016 Jun 23.


Purpose: Sinus elevation procedures have become a routine and reliable way to gain bone volume in the edentulous maxilla for dental implant placement. Presence of bony septations and pathology in the maxillary sinus often cause complications leading to graft or implant failure or both. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of pathology, direction of the septa, and sinus width measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor in maxillary sinuses using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods: Seventy-two sinuses from 36 random preoperative CBCT scans referred for implant therapy were retrospectively evaluated for the number, prevalence, and direction of bony septations and presence of pathology. Width of the sinus was also measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor to account for the amount of bone available for implant placement.

Results: Maxillary sinus septa were found in 59.7%. Presence of a single septum was noted in 20 sinuses (27.7%), followed by two septa in 17 sinuses. The most common direction of the septum was the transverse direction. Retention pseudocyst and mucosal thickening were the most commonly seen abnormality/pathology.

Conclusion: Based on the high prevalence of septa and sinus pathology in this sample, a preoperative CBCT scan might be helpful in minimizing complications during sinus augmentation procedures for dental implant therapy.

Keywords: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Dental Implants; Maxillary Sinus.