Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pathogen recognition receptor that initiates the immune response against many RNA viruses. Upon RNA ligand binding, RIG-I undergoes a conformational change facilitating its homo-oligomerization and activation that results in its translocation from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to bind its signaling adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS). Here we show that RIG-I activation is regulated by reversible acetylation. Acetyl-mimetic mutants of RIG-I do not form virus-induced homo-oligomers, revealing that acetyl-lysine residues of the RIG-I repressor domain prevent assembly to active homo-oligomers. During acute infection, deacetylation of RIG-I promotes its oligomerization upon ligand binding. We identify histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as the deacetylase that promotes RIG-I activation and innate antiviral immunity to recognize and restrict RNA virus infection.
Keywords: Deacetylation; HCV; HDAC6; Innate immunity; Interferon; RIG-I; West Nile virus.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.