Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds: Selective supercritical extraction of phenolic compounds

Food Chem. 2016 Dec 1;212:703-11. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.028. Epub 2016 Jun 15.


Approximately 70% of the Brazilian production of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds is absorbed by the beverage industries. Guaraná has several pharmacological properties: energy stimulant, antimicrobial, chemoprophylactic, antigenotoxic, antidepressive, anxiolytic, and anti-amnesic effects. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from guaraná seeds was carried out and optimized by an orthogonal array design (OA9(3(4))). The factors/levels studied were: modifier(s) (ethanol and/or methanol), extraction time (20, 40, and 60min), temperature (40, 50, and 60°C), and pressure (100, 200, and 300bar). The statistical design was repeated with increasing proportions of modifiers. The percentage of modifier used was proportional to the amount of polar compounds extracted. The best conditions for the supercritical extraction, based on the content of polyphenols, epicatechin/catechin quantification, yield and operating cost, proved to be: 40% ethanol:methanol during 40min, under 40°C, and 100bar. The temperature had a significant effect on the total phenolic content.

Keywords: Caffeine (PubChem CID: 2519); Catechin (PubChem CID: 9064); Epicatechin (PubChem CID: 72276); Guaraná; Modifier; Orthogonal array; Paullinia cupana; Polyphenols; Pyrogallol (PubChem CID: 1057); Supercritical extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry
  • Brazil
  • Caffeine / chemistry*
  • Catechin / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Methanol / chemistry
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Paullinia / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Polyphenols / chemistry*
  • Pressure
  • Quality Control
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Temperature


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Caffeine
  • Ethanol
  • Catechin
  • Methanol