Mechanisms by which acellular biologic scaffolds promote functional skeletal muscle restoration

Biomaterials. 2016 Oct;103:128-136. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.06.047. Epub 2016 Jun 24.


Acellular biologic scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies as a regenerative medicine approach for volumetric muscle loss treatment. The present manuscript provides a review of previous studies supporting the use of extracellular matrix derived biologic scaffolds for the promotion of functional skeletal muscle tissue formation that is contractile and innervated. The manuscript also identifies key mechanisms that have been associated with ECM-mediated skeletal muscle repair, and provides hypotheses as to why there have been variable outcomes, ranging from successful to unsatisfactory, associated with ECM bioscaffold implantation in the skeletal muscle injury microenvironment.

Keywords: Biologic scaffold; Extracellular matrix; Volumetric muscle loss.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomimetic Materials / chemistry
  • Equipment Design
  • Extracellular Matrix / chemistry*
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration / instrumentation*
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration / methods
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / growth & development*
  • Regeneration / physiology
  • Tissue Engineering / instrumentation*
  • Tissue Scaffolds*