Rapid and selective detection of experimental snake envenomation - Use of gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay

Toxicon. 2016 Sep 1;119:299-306. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.06.023. Epub 2016 Jul 1.


In this study, we have developed a gold nanoparticle based simple, rapid lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Indian Cobra venom (CV) and Russell's viper venom (RV). Presently, there is no rapid, reliable, and field diagnostic test available in India, where snake bite cases are rampant. Therefore, this test has an immense potential from the public health point of view. The test is based on the principle of the paper immunochromatography assay for detection of two snake venom species using polyvalent antisnake venom antibodies (ASVA) raised in equines and species-specific antibodies (SSAbs) against venoms raised in rabbits for conjugation and impregnation respectively. The developed, snake envenomation detection immunoassay (SEDIA) was rapid, selective, and sensitive to detect venom concentrations up to 0.1 ng/ml. The functionality of SEDIA strips was confirmed by experimental envenomation in mice and the results obtained were specific for the corresponding venom. The SEDIA has a potential to be a field diagnostic test to detect snake envenomation and assist in saving lives of snakebite victims.

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles; Lateral flow assay; Rapid detection; SEDIA; Snake envenomation.

MeSH terms

  • Elapid Venoms / analysis
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Gold / chemistry*
  • India
  • Metal Nanoparticles*
  • Snake Bites
  • Viper Venoms / analysis


  • Elapid Venoms
  • Viper Venoms
  • Gold