Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Sep;116(9):1703-13. doi: 10.1007/s00421-016-3424-9. Epub 2016 Jul 5.


Purpose: It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this.

Methods: Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined.

Results: After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG.

Conclusion: The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

Keywords: Abdominal co-contraction; Abdominal muscle thickness; Electromyogram; Intra-abdominal pressure; Stabilization exercise.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Muscles / anatomy & histology
  • Abdominal Muscles / physiology*
  • Exercise / physiology
  • High-Intensity Interval Training / methods*
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction / physiology*
  • Leg / physiology
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength / physiology*
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / methods*
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / physiology*
  • Physical Exertion / physiology
  • Young Adult