Biomarker development in the precision medicine era: lung cancer as a case study

Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 Aug;16(8):525-37. doi: 10.1038/nrc.2016.56. Epub 2016 Jul 8.


Precision medicine relies on validated biomarkers with which to better classify patients by their probable disease risk, prognosis and/or response to treatment. Although affordable 'omics'-based technology has enabled faster identification of putative biomarkers, the validation of biomarkers is still stymied by low statistical power and poor reproducibility of results. This Review summarizes the successes and challenges of using different types of molecule as biomarkers, using lung cancer as a key illustrative example. Efforts at the national level of several countries to tie molecular measurement of samples to patient data via electronic medical records are the future of precision medicine research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • Precision Medicine*
  • Prognosis


  • Biomarkers, Tumor