Early or delayed provision of an ankle-foot orthosis in patients with acute and subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial

Clin Rehabil. 2017 Jun;31(6):798-808. doi: 10.1177/0269215516658337. Epub 2016 Jul 7.


Objective: (1) To study the effects of providing ankle-foot orthoses in subjects with (sub)acute stroke; and (2) to study whether the point in time at which an ankle-foot orthosis is provided post-stroke (early or delayed) influences these effects.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Rehabilitation centre.

Subjects: Unilateral hemiparetic stroke subjects with indication for use of an ankle-foot orthosis and maximal six weeks post-stroke.

Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to: early provision (at inclusion; Week 1) or delayed provision (eight weeks later; Week 9).

Outcome measures: 10-metre walk test, 6-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go Test, stairs test, Functional Ambulation Categories, Berg Balance Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index and Barthel Index; assessed in Weeks 1, 3, 9 and 11.

Results: A total of 33 subjects were randomized (16 early, 17 delayed). Positive effects of ankle-foot orthoses were found two weeks after provision, both when provided early (significant effects on all outcomes) or delayed (Berg Balance Scale p = 0.011, Functional Ambulation Categories p = 0.008, 6-minute walk test p = 0.005, Timed Up and Go Test p = 0.028). Comparing effects after early and delayed provision showed that early provision resulted in increased levels of improvement on Berg Balance Scale (+5.1 points, p = 0.002), Barthel Index (+1.9 points, p = 0.002) and non-significant improvements on 10-metre walk test (+0.14 m/s, p = 0.093) and Timed Up and Go Test (-5.4 seconds, p = 0.087), compared with delayed provision.

Conclusions: We found positive effects of providing ankle-foot orthoses in (sub)acute stroke subjects that had not used these orthoses before.

Keywords: Ankle-foot orthosis; functional outcome; randomized controlled trial; stroke rehabilitation; timing of provision.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ankle Joint
  • Chronic Disease
  • Early Ambulation / instrumentation*
  • Early Ambulation / methods
  • Female
  • Foot Orthoses / supply & distribution*
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic / etiology
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic / rehabilitation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Quality of Life
  • Rehabilitation Centers
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stroke / complications
  • Stroke / diagnosis*
  • Stroke Rehabilitation / instrumentation*
  • Stroke Rehabilitation / methods
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Walk Test / methods