Expression of G Protein-coupled Receptor 56 Is an Unfavorable Prognostic Factor in Osteosarcoma Patients

Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016 Jul;239(3):203-11. doi: 10.1620/tjem.239.203.


G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is an atypical G protein-coupled receptor, with the long extracellular N-terminus. GPR56 can trigger various downstream signaling responsible for cell survival, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Expression of GPR56 is associated with cell malignant transformation and tumor cell metastasis in several carcinomas such as melanoma and glioma. Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults with high metastasis tendency. The overall survival of osteosarcoma is unsatisfied, partially due to the lacking of predictive markers for metastasis and overall prognosis. This study aimed at figuring out whether expression of the GPR56 was associated with clinicopathological features of osteosarcoma. Eighty-nine patients who received osteosarcoma operation between March 2004 and February 2011 in Linyi People's Hospital were recruited. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was carried out to identify the expression of GPR56 in those osteosarcoma tissues, and our cohort was divided into higher-expression group and lower-expression group according to the cut-off of IHC score. Expression of GPR56 in osteosarcoma tissues was correlated with the TNM stage and overall survival. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that GPR56 could act as an independent prognosis factor for osteosarcoma. Western blot results demonstrated that GPR56-siRNA down-regulated the expression of GTP-RhoA and Ki67. GTP-RhoA participates in the cell migration process, while Ki67 plays important roles in cell proliferation, indicating GPR56 may function in tumor development. Correspondingly, we show that GPR56 regulates the proliferation and invasion capacity of osteosarcoma cells. Our study has revealed the prognostic value of GPR56 expression in osteosarcoma.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Osteosarcoma / metabolism*
  • Osteosarcoma / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Young Adult


  • ADGRG1 protein, human
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled