Objective This study aims to evaluate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) defined by the current Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study design This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of 293 pregnancies of women with type 1 DM between 24 and 41 weeks' gestation. Women were categorized according to GWG per week over the second and third trimester: below, within, and above the IOM guidelines. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for maternal and neonatal outcomes, controlling for covariates and confounders (referent: GWG within the IOM guidelines). Results Of the 293 women, there were 49 women (16.7%) with the GWG below the IOM guidelines, 86 women (29.4%) with the GWG within the IOM guidelines, and 158 women (53.9%) with the GWG above the IOM guidelines. Women with the GWG above the IOM guidelines had a higher risk of macrosomia and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (aOR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.23-6.30 and 2.31; 1.22-4.35, respectively). Conclusion GWG above the IOM guidelines is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Maintaining GWG within the IOM guidelines may decrease the risk of excessive fetal growth and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in infants of women with type 1 DM.
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