Prediction of Massive Transfusion in Trauma Patients with Shock Index, Modified Shock Index, and Age Shock Index

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jul 5;13(7):683. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070683.


Objectives: The shock index (SI) and its derivations, the modified shock index (MSI) and the age shock index (Age SI), have been used to identify trauma patients with unstable hemodynamic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate their use in predicting the requirement for massive transfusion (MT) in trauma patients upon arrival at the hospital.

Participants: A patient receiving transfusion of 10 or more units of packed red blood cells or whole blood within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department was defined as having received MT. Detailed data of 2490 patients hospitalized for trauma between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2014, who had received blood transfusion within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department, were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System of a level I regional trauma center. These included 99 patients who received MT and 2391 patients who did not. Patients with incomplete registration data were excluded from the study. The two-sided Fisher exact test or Pearson chi-square test were used to compare categorical data. The unpaired Student t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Parameters including systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), hemoglobin level (Hb), base deficit (BD), SI, MSI, and Age SI that could provide cut-off points for predicting the patients' probability of receiving MT were identified by the development of specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. High accuracy was defined as an area under the curve (AUC) of more than 0.9, moderate accuracy was defined as an AUC between 0.9 and 0.7, and low accuracy was defined as an AUC less than 0.7.

Results: In addition to a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) and worse outcome, the patients requiring MT presented with a significantly higher HR and lower SBP, Hb, and BD, as well as significantly increased SI, MSI, and Age SI. Among these, only four parameters (SBP, BD, SI, and MSI) had a discriminating power of moderate accuracy (AUC > 0.7) as would be expected. A SI of 0.95 and a MSI of 1.15 were identified as the cut-off points for predicting the requirement of MT, with an AUC of 0.760 (sensitivity: 0.563 and specificity: 0.876) and 0.756 (sensitivity: 0.615 and specificity: 0.823), respectively. However, in the groups of patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or coronary artery disease, the discriminating power of these three indices in predicting the requirement of MT was compromised.

Conclusions: This study reveals that the SI is moderately accurate in predicting the need for MT. However, this predictive power may be compromised in patients with HTN, DM or CAD. Moreover, the more complex calculations of MSI and Age SI failed to provide better discriminating power than the SI.

Keywords: age shock index; hypotension; injury severity; massive transfusion; modified shock index; shock; shock index; trauma.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Transfusion*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / therapy
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • ROC Curve
  • Registries
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Shock / therapy*
  • Trauma Centers
  • Wounds and Injuries / therapy
  • Young Adult