There is an urgent need to improve agricultural productivity to secure future food and biofuel supply. Here, we summarize current approaches that aim at improving photosynthetic CO2-fixation. We critically review, compare and comment on the four major lines of research towards this aim, which focus on (i) improving RubisCO, the CO2-fixing enzyme in photosynthesis, (ii) implementing CO2-concentrating mechanisms, (iii) establishing synthetic photorespiration bypasses, and (iv) engineering synthetic CO2-fixation pathways.
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