Macrophages play crucial roles in combatting infectious disease by promoting inflammation and phagocytosis. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is a secreted factor that induces tissue inflammation by attracting and activating macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines in chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as obesity-associated metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we asked whether and how ANGPTL2 activates macrophages in the innate immune response. ANGPTL2 was predominantly expressed in proinflammatory mouse bone marrow-derived differentiated macrophages (GM-BMMs) following GM-CSF treatment relative to anti-inflammatory cells (M-BMMs) established by M-CSF treatment. Expression of the proinflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-12p35, and IL-12p40 significantly decreased in GM-BMMs from Angptl2-deficient compared with wild-type (WT) mice, suggestive of attenuated proinflammatory activity. We also report that ANGPTL2 inflammatory signaling is transduced through integrin α5β1 rather than through paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B. Interestingly, Angptl2-deficient mice were more susceptible to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium than were WT mice. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) production by Angptl2-deficient GM-BMMs was significantly lower than in WT GM-BMMs. Collectively, our findings suggest that macrophage-derived ANGPTL2 promotes an innate immune response in those cells by enhancing proinflammatory activity and NO production required to fight infection.
Keywords: Angptl2; cytokine induction; inflammation; innate immunity; macrophage; microbiology.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.