A wide range of ion channels, transporters, signaling pathways and tissue structure at a microscopic and macroscopic scale regulate the electrophysiological activity of the heart. Each region of the heart has optimised these properties based on its specific role during the cardiac cycle, leading to well-established differences in electrophysiology, Ca(2+) handling and tissue structure between atria and ventricles and between different layers of the ventricular wall. Similarly, the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) have different embryological, structural, metabolic and electrophysiological features, but whether interventricular differences promote differential remodeling leading to arrhythmias is not well understood. In this article, we will summarise the available data on intrinsic differences between LV and RV electrophysiology and indicate how these differences affect cardiac function. Furthermore, we will discuss the differential remodeling of both chambers in pathological conditions and its potential impact on arrhythmogenesis.
Keywords: Regional differences; cardiac remodeling; right and left ventricle; ventricular arrhythmias; ventricular function.