Mammography utilization remains below the level needed to achieve the National Cancer Institute's year-2000 goals for reducing breast cancer mortality by 50%. Previous research has identified both patient and physician barriers. The authors interviewed 600 randomly selected women who were offered a free mammographic examination. Interviews were conducted by professional interviewers using a brief, structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed with chi 2 Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum statistics and discriminant analysis. Noncompliant subjects reported more barriers than compliant subjects. The former were more likely to believe that mammography is unnecessary in the absence of symptoms and that it is inconvenient. In both the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the woman's belief that her doctor believes in regular mammography was an important predictor of compliance.