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. 2016 May;53(5):2287-97.
doi: 10.1007/s13197-016-2191-2. Epub 2016 May 24.

The Effect of Flow Rate at Different Pressures and Temperatures on Cocoa Butter Extracted From Cocoa Nib Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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Free PMC article

The Effect of Flow Rate at Different Pressures and Temperatures on Cocoa Butter Extracted From Cocoa Nib Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

E K Asep et al. J Food Sci Technol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The effects of flow rate, different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were investigated. The yield was analyzed for total fat content, triacylglycerol (TG) profile, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Extractions were carried out at pressures of 20 and 35 MPa, temperatures of 50 and 60 °C, and CO2 flow rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mL min(-1). The result shows that the yield of cocoa butter extract increased with increasing pressure, temperature, and flow rate and the optimum conditions for the maximum cocoa butter extraction were 35 MPa, 60 °C and 2 mL min(-1), repectively. TGs and FAs were found to be similar in composition to those of cocoa butter obtained by conventional methods. The lower molecular weight TGs and FAs showed higher selectivity compared to higher molecular weight TGs and FAs.

Keywords: Cocoa butter; Flow rate; Pressure; Selectivity; Temperature; scCO2 extraction.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Effect of flow rate on cocoa butter extraction from cocoa liquor using scCO2 at 20 MPa and 50 °C, a yield (wt%) versus extraction time (h), b yield (wt%) versus weight of CO2(g). Standard deviations of the reported results are in the range of 0.08 to 1.21, 0.07 to 1.06, 0.09 to 1.14 and 0.09 to 1.11 for f1, f2, f3 and f4 curves, respectively
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of flow rate on cocoa butter extraction from cocoa liquor using scCO2 at 35 MPa and 50 °oC, a yield (wt%) versus extraction time (h), b yield (wt%) versus weight of CO2(g). Standard deviations of the reported results are in the range of 0.09 to 1.40, 0.07 to 1.04, 0.10 to 1.18 and 0.08 to 1.21 for f1, f2, f3 and f4 curves, respectively
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Effect of flow rate on cocoa butter extraction from cocoa liquor using scCO2 at 20 MPa and 60 °C, a yield (wt%) versus extraction time (h), b yield (wt%) versus weight of CO2(g). Standard deviations of the reported results are in the range of 0.08 to 1.27, 0.06 to 1.09, 0.10 to 1.44 and 0.09 to 1.10 for f1, f2, f3 and f4 curves, respectively
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Effect of flow rate on cocoa butter extraction from cocoa liquor using scCO2 at 35 MPa and 60 °oC, a yield (wt%) versus extraction time (h), b yield (wt%) versus weight of CO2(g). Standard deviations of the reported results are in the range of 0.09 to 1.43, 0.09 to 1.27, 0.11 to 1.55 and 0.07 to 1.19 for f1, f2, f3 and f4 curves, respectively

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