Linshom respiratory monitoring device: a novel temperature-based respiratory monitor

Can J Anaesth. 2016 Oct;63(10):1154-60. doi: 10.1007/s12630-016-0694-y. Epub 2016 Jul 13.


Purpose: We sought to develop a temperature-based respiratory instrument to measure respiration noninvasively outside critical care settings.

Method: Respiratory temperature profiles were recorded using a temperature-based noninvasive instrument comprised of three rapid responding medical-grade thermistors-two in close proximity to the mouth/nose (sensors) and one remote to the airway (reference). The effect of the gas flow rate on the amplitude of the tracings was determined. The temperature-based instrument, the Linshom Respiratory Monitoring Device (LRMD) was mounted to a face mask and positioned on a mannequin face. Respiratory rates of 5-40 breaths·min(-1) were then delivered to the mannequin face in random order using artificial bellows (IngMar Lung Model). Data from the sensors were collected and compared with the bellows rates using least squares linear regression and coefficient of determination. The investigators breathed at fixed rates of 0-60 breaths·min(-1) in synchrony with a metronome as their respiratory temperature profiles were recorded from sensors mounted to either a face mask or nasal prongs. The recordings were compared with a contemporaneously recorded sidestream capnogram from a CARESCAPE GEB450 Monitor. The extracted respiratory rates from the LRMD tracings and capnograms were compared using linear regression with a coefficient of determination and a Bland-Altman plot.

Results: The amplitude of the sensor tracings was independent of the oxygen flow rate. Respiratory rates from the new temperature-based sensor were synchronous and correlated identically with both the artificial bellows (r(2) = 0.9997) and the capnometer mounted to both the face mask and nasal prongs (r(2) = 0.99; bias = -0.17; 95% confidence interval, -2.15 to 1.8).

Conclusions: Respiratory rates using the LRMD, a novel temperature-based respiratory instrument, were consistent with those using capnometry.

MeSH terms

  • Body Temperature
  • Capnography
  • Humans
  • Manikins
  • Masks
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / instrumentation*
  • Oxygen / administration & dosage
  • Oxygen / chemistry
  • Respiratory Mechanics*


  • Oxygen