Time-varying effects of families and peers on adolescent marijuana use: Person-environment interactions across development

Dev Psychopathol. 2017 Aug;29(3):887-900. doi: 10.1017/S0954579416000559. Epub 2016 Jul 15.


Studies have demonstrated that the effects of two well-known predictors of adolescent substance use, family monitoring and antisocial peers, are not static but change over the course of adolescence. Moreover, these effects may differ for different groups of youth. The current study uses time-varying effect modeling to examine the changes in the association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use from ages 11 to 19, and to compare these associations by gender and levels of behavioral disinhibition. Data are drawn from the Raising Healthy Children study, a longitudinal panel of 1,040 youth. The strength of association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use was mostly steady over adolescence, and was greater for girls than for boys. Differences in the strength of the association were also evident by levels of behavioral disinhibition: youth with lower levels of disinhibition were more susceptible to the influence of parents and peers. Stronger influence of family monitoring on girls and less disinhibited youth was most evident in middle adolescence, whereas the stronger effect of antisocial peers was significant during middle and late adolescence. Implications for the timing and targeting of marijuana preventive interventions are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Family / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Marijuana Abuse / psychology
  • Marijuana Use / psychology*
  • Peer Group*
  • Social Environment*
  • Young Adult