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. 2016 Nov 1;524(16):3127-481.
doi: 10.1002/cne.24080.

Comprehensive Cellular-Resolution Atlas of the Adult Human Brain

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Comprehensive Cellular-Resolution Atlas of the Adult Human Brain

Song-Lin Ding et al. J Comp Neurol. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.
    Ding SL, Royall JJ, Sunkin SM, Ng L, Facer BA, Lesnar P, Guillozet-Bongaarts A, McMurray B, Szafer A, Dolbeare TA, Stevens A, Tirrell L, Benner T, Caldejon S, Dalley RA, Dee N, Lau C, Nyhus J, Reding M, Riley ZL, Sandman D, Shen E, van der Kouwe A, Varjabedian A, Write M, Zollei L, Dang C, Knowles JA, Koch C, Phillips JW, Sestan N, Wohnoutka P, Zielke HR, Hohmann JG, Jones AR, Bernard A, Hawrylycz MJ, Hof PR, Fischl B, LeinReference ES. Ding SL, et al. J Comp Neurol. 2017 Feb 1;525(2):407. doi: 10.1002/cne.24130. J Comp Neurol. 2017. PMID: 27917481 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

Abstract

Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: AB_2314904; DWI; MRI; RRIDs: AB_10000343; SCR_014329; amygdala; brain atlas; brainstem; cerebellum; cerebral cortex; cytoarchitecture; hippocampal formation; hypothalamus; neurofilament protein; parvalbumin; thalamus.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
General workflow of atlas generation.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Whole‐brain reference atlas components. A,B: DWI tractography and structural MRI. C: Midline‐sagittal photograph of left hemisphere. D: Block‐face image of a coronal slab. E: Digital images of adjacent sections stained for PV, NFP, and Nissl. F: Cellular‐resolution detail in cerebellar (Nissl and NFP) and cingulate cortex (PV). G: Brain ontology with color codes, acronyms, full names, and hierarchical parent–daughter relationships. H: Anatomical delineation of a Nissl plate from a combined analysis of all three stains. I: Interactive color‐coded digital atlas with both modified Brodmann (I1) and traditional gyral (I2) cortical maps. Black arrows point to some of the differences between these maps.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Examples of closely adjacent whole‐hemisphere sections for the histological stains used in the atlas. A combined analysis of Nissl‐stained (A), and NFP‐ (B) and PV‐ (C) immunostained sections greatly facilitated delineation of both cortical and subcortical regions of the human brain (see examples in Figs. 5, 6, 7). The size of a typical plate at native resolution (1 µm/pixel) is ∼3.0 m wide and 4.3 m high. Scale bar = 3,108 µm in A–C.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Detailed delineation of the human hypothalamus. A high sampling density (about 40 plates total, with 20 shown here) covering the entire anterior–posterior (AT) extent of the hypothalamus was employed to ensure sampling and annotation of even the smallest structures such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in AC). For abbreviations see the hypothalamic part of the ontology in Table 3. Scale bar = 1,940 µm in T (applies to A–T).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Defining cortical boundaries with a combined analysis of Nissl‐, NFP‐, and PV‐stained sections. A,B, and inset in B: Boundary determining of the indusium griseum (IG), supracallosal subiculum (SuS), retrosplenial areas 29 (A29) and 30 (A30), and caudal presubiculum (PrSc; or postsubiculum [PoS]). C: Color‐coded map of the region shown in A and B. cc, corpus callosum. PV and NFP immunostaining patterns help delineate neocortical borders and white matter tracts. D,E: Differences in PV immunolabeling intensity helps define the boundaries between area 36 and area 20 (20i). Scale bar = 1,106 µm in C (applies to A–C) and E (applies to D,E).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Defining boundaries of cortical and subcortical structures with NFP‐ (AF) and PV‐ (G) stained sections. A–C: NFP staining patterns in primary motor cortex (M1C), primary somatosensory cortex (S1C), and the rostrodorsal portion of area 40 (A40rd). The locations of these three cortical areas were marked with *, **, and *** respectively in Figure 8A. Arabic numbers specify cortical layers. D: NFP staining pattern in the thalamus (Thal) defines Pf, CM, and adjoining structures. CM, centromedian nucleus; MD, mediodorsal nucleus; Pf, parafascicular nucleus. VPI, ventral posterior inferior nucleus; VPM, ventral posterior medial nucleus; VPMpc, parvocellular part of VPM. E,F: NFP is observed in select white matter tracts in the brainstem including the facial (r7 in E) and trochlear (r4 in F) nerve roots. 6N, abducens nucleus; r7, facial nerve root; x4, decussation of trochlear nerve roots (r4 in F). G: PV is selectively expressed in the commissure of the inferior colliculus (cmic). Scale bar = 777 µm in C (applies to A–C), D, and E; 277 µm in F; 88 µm in G.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Defining white matter fiber tracts and subcortical structures with combined analysis of NFP and PV stains. AC: Combined analysis of NFP immunoreactivity (A) and Nissl staining (B) in the medulla leading to anatomical parcellation (C). NFP clearly delineates specific cranial nuclei (e.g., 10N, 12N) and fiber tracts (e.g., r12). D,E: PV‐immunoreactive axons in the external part of sagittal stratum/optic radiation (“or” in D and inset) compared with the internal part of the sagittal stratum (ssti) and tapetum of the corpus callosum (tap) that do not show PV immunoreactivity. Inset: High‐magnification view of PV‐immunoreactive axons in the optic radiation (*). 10N, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve; 12N, hypoglossal nucleus; iLV, inferior horn of the lateral ventricle; IO, inferior olive; r12 and r10, hypoglossal and vagus nerve roots; Scale bar = 777 µm in A (applies to A,B); 1,554 µm in D.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Alternate schemes for cortical parcellation. Modified Brodmann's areas (A) or sulci and gyri (B) were annotated on the same Nissl‐stained plate (C) to show micro‐ and macrostructural relationships. Examples of how cortical areas were delineated are given in Figures 5 and 6. The markers (*, **, ***) and (#) in A indicate the locations of pictures in Figure 6A–C and Figure 5D,E, respectively. For abbreviations see the ontology in Table 3. Inset is a schematic representation of the whole hemisphere based on MRI, with the red vertical lines in A and B indicating the location of the section plate. Both modified Brodmann's areas and gyral/sulcal mapping of the cerebral cortex are available online at www.branspan.org. Scale bar = 3,108 µm in A–C.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Detailed parcellation of the human amygdalar complex. Shown are ten of the 18 annotated plates covering the A‐P extent (AJ) of the amygdala. For abbreviations see the amygdalar portion of the ontology in Table 3 Scale bar = 3,102 µm in J (applies to A–J).
Figure 10
Figure 10
Novel subdivisions of the mediodorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus and basomedial nucleus (BM) of the amygdala. A: Nissl staining reveals a group of larger cells (termed MDam, labeled with * in high magnification image and overview atlas plate (inset)) located between the paraventricular nucleus (PaV) and anterior mediodorsal nucleus MDm) of the thalamus distinct from neighboring regions. B: Distinct molecular specificity of MDam is demonstrated by ISH for ACHE and NTS (inset in B). C,D: Novel subdivision of amygdalar basomedial nucleus differentiated by smaller and relatively lightly Nissl‐stained cells (termed BMm, labeled with * in high magnification image and overview atlas plate (inset) in C) and selective enrichment for the GABA receptor subunit E (GABRE, in D) compared with neighboring dorsal and ventral regions (BMD and BMV) and posterior cortical nucleus (CoP). Scale bar = 1,109 µm in B (applies to A,B); 1,550 µm in D (applies to C,D).
Figure 11
Figure 11
Identification of the lateral olfactory area (LOA) in the adult human brain. A,B: Adjacent sections stained for Nissl (A) and NFP (B) showing the architectural features of LOA that differ from neighboring substantia nominata (SI) and piriform cortex (Pir). In Nissl‐stained sections, SI contains different types of cell patches (asterisks and arrowhead) while Pir is characterized by a darkly stained and densely packed layer 2 (A). LOA does not have these characteristic features, but shows cell patches that are different from those in SI (A). In NFP‐immunostained sections, Pir is very light throughout while LOA shows strong labeling in the superficial layer (B). Only the large‐celled patch (arrow) and scattered large cells of SI are strongly stained while other patches are negative (B). ac, anterior commissure; NDBh, horizontal part of nucleus of diagonal band; VeP, ventral pallidus; lost, lateral olfactory stria. Scale bar = 430 µm in A (applies to A,B).
Figure 12
Figure 12
Location and topographic relationship of area prostriata (APro). APro (labeled as Pro) is adjoined by the retrosplenial cortex (areas 29 and 30, not shown), postsubiculum (PoS in A), posterior cingulate cortex (area 23 in BD) anterodorsally, and dorsal secondary visual cortex (V2d in D‐G) posterodorsally. Anteroventrally, APro is adjoined by the ventral secondary visual cortex (V2 in AD). Posteroventrally and posteriorly, APro is adjoined by the anteroventral part of the primary visual cortex (V1v in EH). Scale bar = 4,420 µm in H (applies to A–H).
Figure 13
Figure 13
A novel subregion of the deep nuclei of the cerebellum. This has been named the basal interstitial nucleus of cerebellum (BIcb) and is embedded deep in the white matter medial to the dentate nucleus (DT) and lateral and inferior to the globose nucleus (i.e., the medial interpositus nucleus [InPM in A]). In Nissl stain, the cells in the BIcb are large and darkly stained (B). In NFP stain, these large cells are positively stained (C,D; C is the higher power view of the “*” region in D). Scale bar = 1,554 µm in D (applies to B,D).
Figure 14
Figure 14
Identification of fine anatomical features in same‐brain MRI and transfer to other brain MRI data. A: Reference atlas plate showing subdivisions of the medial geniculate nucleus (MG), dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG), and adjoining regions. B: Identification of the MG and DLG on the ex vivo MRI scan from the same brain by comparison with the corresponding reference plate based on subtle differences between MRI signal intensity of the MG and DLG and neighboring white and gray matter. The majority of the image contrast comes from T2* weighting and the contrast has been inverted. C,D: Identification of the MG and DLG on the MRI scans (T1 images) from other brains in the Allen Human Brain Atlas without histological stains using the extracted features of MG (bright) and DLG (dark) signal intensity at the same sectioning plane as the atlas. Hip, hippocampus; IP, interpeduncular nucleus; MD, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus; PAG, periaqueductal gray; Pul, pulvinar; SN, substantia nigra. Scale bar = 5,160 µm in D (applies to B–D).
Figure 15
Figure 15
Structure identification on MRI of other brains. AD: Identification of structures on T1‐weighted MRI scans from case H0351.2002 of the Allen Human Brain Atlas (http://human.brain-map.org). By virtue of anatomical features extracted from this reference atlas (see Fig. 14), structures such as Pu, GPe (A), MD, RN, SN, ZI (B), Pul, MG, DLG (C), and “or” (optic radiation, D) are consistently identified. E,F: Pul, MG, DLG, SN, RN, ZI, and other structures were also confirmed in a T1‐weighted MRI dataset from another case (H0351.2001). For abbreviations see the ontology in Table 3. Scale bar = 5,160 µm in A (applies to A–F).
Figure 16
Figure 16
Anteroposterior position of the 106 annotated plates shown in Figure 17. Major macroscopic landmarks (sulci and gyri) on the medial aspect of the left hemisphere are indicated (flipped to show the plate levels (plates 1–106) in an anterior‐to‐posterior order). General locations of slabs 1–8 were also marked at the top. Note that in slabs 4–7, only the alternative plates were indicated, to avoid busy lines. For abbreviations see Table 3. Scale bar = 2 cm.
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 1a (01_111) Human brain atlas plates. 106 plates with matching histological sections are displayed in anterior‐to‐posterior (A‐P) order. The matching histological images include 50 Nissl‐stained, and 50 NFP‐ and 6 PV‐immunostained sections. The 106 plate images, corresponding to the A‐P positions delineated in Figure 16, combine the cortical annotation of modified Brodmann areas and traditional gyri and sulci. At the top right of each plate, plate levels (levels 1–106, as indicated in Fig. 16), as well as slab numbers and section positions in that slab (e.g., 01–111 represents the 111th section of slab 1) are indicated. At each level, a color‐coded atlas plate (“a” series; 1a–106a) and a histological image (“b” series; 1b–106b) are presented. The inset diagram at the top right corner of each atlas plate shows the A‐P position (red line) of that plate on a schematic representation of the whole hemisphere based on MRI. The green lettering along the cortical surface indicates cortical sulci (lower case, often with black arrowheads) and gyri (upper case), which were generally defined by adjacent sulci. Modified Brodmann areas were labeled within the cortical gray matter with differential color coding. In plates containing cerebellar cortex, alternative plates were annotated for three cerebellar cortical zones (vermis, paravermis, and lateral hemisphere) and 10 lobules (lobules I–X), respectively. Other subcortical structures were also labeled with differential color coding. The general locations of most white matter tracts are indicated by a circled “W”. Fiber tracts with clear boundaries, such as ac, mtt, ot, sste/or, fx, fr, scp, py, and ml, were outlined by black lines without color code (white). The parcellation and subdivisions of different brain regions as well as the parent–daughter relationship and abbreviation of each structure are detailed in Table 3. Note that two separate versions of this atlas for modified Brodmann areas and traditional gyri and sulci, respectively, are available in the online version of this atlas (www.brainspan.org or http://brainspan.org/static/atlas). For abbreviations see Table 3. Scale bar = 5 mm (at levels 1b–106b). Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 1b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 2a (01_179) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 2b (Nissl)
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Level 3a (01_247) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 3b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 4a (01_307) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 4b (Nissl)
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Level 5a (02_111) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 5b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 6a (02_111) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 6b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 7a (02_175) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 7b (Nissl)
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Level 8a (02_219) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 8b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 9a (02_231) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 9b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 10a (02_295) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 10b (Nissl)
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Level 11a (02_335) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 11b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 12a (02_359) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 12b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 13a (02_407) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 13b (Nissl)
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Level 14a (03_031) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 14b (Parvalbumin)
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Level 15a (03_095) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 15b (Nissl)
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Level 16a (03_159) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 16b (Nissl)
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Level 17a (03_227) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 17b (Nissl)
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Level 18a (03_291) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 18b (Nissl)
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Level 19a (04_035) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 19b (Nissl)
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Level 20a (04_051) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 20b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 21a (04_059) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 21b (Nissl)
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Level 22a (04_083) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 22b (Nissl)
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Level 23a (04_095) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 23b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 24a (04_115) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 24b (Nissl)
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Level 25a (04_135) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 25b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 26a (04_147) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 26b (Nissl)
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Level 27a (04_167) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 27b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 28a (04_179) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 28b (Nissl)
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Level 29a (04_195) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 29b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 30a (04_207) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 30b (Nissl)
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Level 31a (04_215) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 31b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 32a (04_231) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 32b (Nissl)
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Level 33a (04_239) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 33b (Nissl)
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Level 34a (04_251) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 34b (Nissl)
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Level 35a (04_259) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 35b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 36a (04_267) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 36b (Nissl)
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Level 37a (04_279) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 37b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 38a (04_291) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 38b (Nissl)
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Level 39a (04_307) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 39b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 40a (04_315) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 41a (04_327) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 42a (04_335) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 43a (05_031) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 44a (05_047) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 45a (05_063) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 46a (05_079) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 47a (05_091) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 48a (05_103) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 49a (05_123) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 50a (05_135) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 50b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 51a (05_147) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 52a (05_159) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 52b (Nissl)
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Level 53a (05_171) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 54a (05_187) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 55a (05_203) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 56a (05_223) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 57a (05_235) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 57b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 58a (05_255) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 58b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 59a (05_275) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 59b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 60a (05_287) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 60b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 61a (05_303) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 61b (Parvalbumin)
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Level 62a (05_311) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 62b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 63a (05_323) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 63b (Nissl)
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Level 64a (06_035) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 64b (Parvalbumin)
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Level 65a (05_047) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 65b (Nissl)
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Level 66a (06_063) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 66b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 67a (06_083) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 67b (Nissl)
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Level 68a (06_095) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 68b (NFP (SMI‐32))
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Level 69a (06_107) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
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Level 69b (Parvalbumin)
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Level 70a (06_119) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 70b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 71a (06_131) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 71b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 72a (06_147) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 72b (Parvalbumin)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 73a (06_159) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 73b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 74a (06_179) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 74b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 75a (06_195) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 75b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 76a (06_207) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 76b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 77a (06_223) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 77b (Parvalbumin)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 78a (06_239) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 78b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 79a (06_255) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 79b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 80a (06_271) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 80b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 81a (06_291) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 81b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 82a (06_299) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 82b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 83a (07_027) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 83b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 84a (07_043) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 84b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 85a (07_059) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 85b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 86a (07_075) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 86b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 87a (07_091) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 87b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 88a (07_111) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 88b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 89a (07_123) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 89b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 90a (07_147) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 90b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 91a (07_163) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 91b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 92a (07_171) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 92b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 93a (07_191) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 93b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 94a (07_207) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 94b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 95a (07_223) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 95b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 96a (07_235) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 96b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 97a (07_251) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 97b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 98a (07_267) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 98b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 99a (07_287) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 99b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 100a (07_299) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 100b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 101a (07_315) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 101b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 102a (08_039) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 102b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 103a (08_103) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 103b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 104a (08_167) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 104b (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 105a (08_231) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 105b (NFP (SMI‐32))
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 106a (08_291) Link to online high resolution atlas plate Link to online high resolution atlas plate (Nissl)
Figure 17
Figure 17
Level 106b (Nissl)
Figure 18
Figure 18
Gross anatomy of the left hemisphere and anteroposterior position of the 76 annotated MRI images shown in Figure 19. Main macroscopic landmarks (sulci and gyri) on dorsal (A), lateral (B), and ventral (C) aspects of the left hemisphere are indicated. The A‐P locations (levels 1–76) of the 76 MRI images are marked with black lines 1–76 in B. * and # indicate two corresponding regions. For abbreviations see Table 3. Scale bar = 2 cm in A (applies to A–C).
Figure 19
Figure 19
Level 01 MRI and DWI plates from the same brain. Left column: Seventy‐six sequential 7T MRI slices from the same left hemisphere as the atlas shown in Figure 17 were annotated according to the atlas plates in Figure 17. The interval between each slice is 2 mm. The MRI images were annotated for easily predicted and/or identified structures through correspondence to the annotated histological atlas. Several clearly delineated fiber tracts are annotated as well, including the optic radiation (“or” at levels 42–69) and somatosensory radiation (‘sr” at levels 38–46). For abbreviations see Table 3. Right column: Top panel shows colorized fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the corresponding plane of section in the DWI dataset, representing the primary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor data overlaid on the FA map. Bottom panel shows tractography images created in TrackVis showing all tracts passing through the represented plane of section (90% of tracts omitted with only tracts longer than 20 mm displayed). Scale bar = 5 mm.
Figure 19
Figure 19
Level 02
Figure 19
Figure 19
Level 03
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Level 04
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Level 05
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Level 06
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Level 07
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Level 08
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Level 09
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Level 10
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Level 11
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Level 12
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Level 13
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Level 14
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Level 15
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Level 16
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Level 17
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Level 18
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Level 19
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Level 20
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Level 21
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Level 22
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Level 23
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Level 24
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Level 25
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Level 26
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Level 27
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Level 28
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Level 29
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Level 30
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Level 31
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Level 32
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Level 33
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Level 34
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Level 35
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Level 36
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Level 37
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Level 38
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Level 39
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Level 40
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Level 41
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Level 42
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Level 43
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Level 44
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Level 45
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Level 46
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Level 47
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Level 48
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Level 49
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Level 50
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Level 51
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Level 52
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Level 53
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Level 54
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Level 55
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Level 56
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Level 57
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Level 58
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Level 59
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Level 60
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Level 61
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Level 62
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Level 63
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Level 64
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Level 65
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Level 66
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Level 67
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Level 68
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Level 69
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Level 70
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Level 71
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Level 72
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Level 73
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Level 76

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