The present study analyzes the influence of the addition of monocytes to a biphasic bone substitute with two granule sizes (400-700 μm and 500-1000 μm). The majority of the added monocytes was detectable as mononuclear cells, while also low amounts of (chimeric) multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) were found. No increase in the total number of MNGCs was established, but a significantly increased percent vascularization. Altogether, the results show that the added monocytes become involved in the tissue response to a biomaterial without marked changes in the overall reaction. Monocyte addition enables an increased implant bed vascularization especially via induction of vessel maturation and, thus intervenes positively in the healing reaction to a biomaterial. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2928-2935, 2016.
Keywords: addition of monocytes; biphasic bone substitute; multinucleated giant cells; vascularization.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.