Electrochemical monitoring-on-chip (E-MoC) of HIV-infection in presence of cocaine and therapeutics

Biosens Bioelectron. 2016 Dec 15;86:426-431. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.06.086. Epub 2016 Jun 29.


Electrochemical monitoring-on-chip (E-MoC)-based approach for rapid assessment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of cocaine (Coc) and specific drugs namely i.e., tenofovir (Tef), rimcazole (RA) is demonstrated here, for the first time, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An in-vitro primary human astrocytes (HA) model was developed using a cultureware chip (CC, used for E-MoC) for HIV-infection, Coc exposure and treatment with anti-HIV drug i.e., Tef, and Coc antagonist i.e., RA. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) value of each CC well varies with respect to infection and treatment demonstrated highly responsive sensitivity of developed chip. The results of E-MoC, a proof-of-the concept, suggested that HIV-infection progression due to Coc ingestion and therapeutic effects of highly specific drugs are measurable on the basis of cell electrophysiology. Though, this work needs various molecular biology-based optimizations to promote this technology as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of HIV-infection in a patient to manage HIV diseases for timely diagnosis. The presented study is based on using CNS cells and efforts are being made to perform this method using peripheral cells such as monocytes derived dendritic cells.

Keywords: Cocaine; Electrochemical sensing; HIV monitoring; Monitoring-on-chip (MoC).

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Astrocytes / drug effects
  • Astrocytes / physiology*
  • Astrocytes / virology*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Conductometry / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • HIV / drug effects*
  • HIV / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Tissue Array Analysis / instrumentation


  • Anti-HIV Agents