Identification of biomarkers for pseudo and true progression of GBM based on radiogenomics study

Oncotarget. 2016 Aug 23;7(34):55377-55394. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10553.


The diagnosis for pseudoprogression (PsP) and true tumor progression (TTP) of GBM is a challenging task in clinical practices. The purpose of this study is to identify potential genetic biomarkers associated with PsP and TTP based on the clinical records, longitudinal imaging features, and genomics data. We are the first to introduce the radiogenomics approach to identify candidate genes for PsP and TTP of GBM. Specifically, a novel longitudinal sparse regression model was developed to construct the relationship between gene expression and imaging features. The imaging features were extracted from tumors along the longitudinal MRI and provided diagnostic information of PsP and TTP. The 33 candidate genes were selected based on their association with the imaging features, reflecting their relation with the development of PsP and TTP. We then conducted biological relevance analysis for 33 candidate genes to identify the potential biomarkers, i.e., Interferon regulatory factor (IRF9) and X-ray repair cross-complementing gene (XRCC1), which were involved in the cancer suppression and prevention, respectively. The IRF9 and XRCC1 were further independently validated in the TCGA data. Our results provided the first substantial evidence that IRF9 and XRCC1 can serve as the potential biomarkers for the development of PsP and TTP.

Keywords: GBM; IRF9; XRCC1; pseudo and true tumor progression; radiogenomics.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Disease Progression
  • Genomics*
  • Glioblastoma / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit / analysis*
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 / analysis*


  • Biomarkers
  • IRF9 protein, human
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1
  • XRCC1 protein, human