Background: There have been several reports of congenital malformations in the offspring of mothers who took valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy as a treatment for epilepsy.
Methods: Herein, we describe four cases with typically similar facial features of fetal valproate syndrome accompanied to minor skeletal abnormalities.
Results: The first case was a 16-month-old girl, presenting with facial dysmorphism, and finger abnormalities. Her mother took VPA (1500 mg/d) up to the 10th gestational week and at a dosage of 1000 mg/d through the pregnancy. The second patient was 5-year-old boy with speech disability, bilateral cryptorchidism, facial dysmorphism, and finger abnormalities whose mother took VPA (1000 mg/d) through pregnancy. The third 19-month-old patient was the brother of the second patient who had facial dysmorphism, bilateral cryptorchidism, and finger abnormalities. His mother also took VPA (1000 mg/d) through pregnancy. The fourth 3-year and 6 month-old boy with minor facial dysmorphism and sternum deformity was exposed to VPA (500 mg/d) in utero.
Conclusion: In conclusion, there is a recognizable spectrum of abnormalities in some infants exposed to VPA without dose-depence and the common facial dysmorphic features and minor skeletal abnormalities that may occur within the both low and high dose VPA use.
Keywords: facial dysmorphism; fetal valproate syndrome; minor birth defects; skeletal abnormalities.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.