Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease decreased dramatically after the introduction of conjugate vaccine in routine immunization schedules. We report a case of a fifteen-months-old girl, previously healthy and vaccinated, admitted in the emergency room with fever and vomiting. She was irritable and the Brudzinski's sign was positive. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed pleocytosis and high protein level. Empiric intravenous antibiotics (ceftriaxone and vancomycin) were administered for suspected bacterial meningitis during 10 days. Serotyping of the Haemophilus influenzae strain found in CSF revealed a serotype b. After one year of follow-up no Hib meningitis sequelae were noted. Despite vaccination compliance and absence of risk factors, invasive Hib disease can occur due to vaccine failure. Efforts to keep the low incidence of invasive Hib disease should be directed to the maintenance of high vaccination coverage rates, combined with the notification and surveillance strategies already implemented in each country.
Keywords: Children; Haemophilus influenzae type b; Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; Meningitis; Vaccine failure.
Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.