Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer with bladder invasion

J Radiat Res. 2016 Nov;57(6):684-690. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrw070. Epub 2016 Jul 15.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer with bladder invasion by a subset analysis of pooled data from eight prospective clinical trials at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Between June 1995 and January 2014, 29 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer with bladder invasion were identified. The median age was 56 years old (range 31-79 years old). The median tumor size at diagnosis on magnetic resonance imaging was 6.7 cm (range 3.5-11.0 cm). Histologically, 20 patients had squamous cell carcinoma and 9 had adenocarcinoma. C-ion RT was performed as a dose-escalation study in the initial trials. All patients received prophylactic whole-pelvic or extended-field irradiation and local boost. The total dose to the cervical tumor was 52.8-74.4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 20 or 24 fractions. Weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2/week, five cycles) was concurrently given to four patients. The median follow-up of all patients was 28.6 months (range 8.8-238.6 months). Grade 2 or higher late complications in the bladder were observed in eight patients, with seven developing vesicovaginal fistula. Six patients had Grade 2 or higher complications in the rectosigmoid colon. The 3-year overall survival rate was 47%, the 3-year local control rate was 66%, and the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 28%. In this study, C-ion RT showed favorable local control with reasonable toxicities, but the results were still unsatisfactory. We have the expectation of improvement of therapeutic effects by using C-ion RT with concurrent chemotherapy.

Keywords: Stage IVA; bladder invasion; carbon-ion radiotherapy; cervical cancer; vesicovaginal fistula.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carbon / chemistry*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Female
  • Heavy Ion Radiotherapy
  • Humans
  • Ions
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiotherapy / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy*


  • Ions
  • Carbon