Functional properties of LRRK2 mutations in Taiwanese Parkinson disease

J Formos Med Assoc. 2017 Mar;116(3):197-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2016.04.009. Epub 2016 Jul 14.


Background/purpose: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large protein encoding multiple functional domains. Mutations within different LRRK2 domains have been considered to be involved in the development of Parkinson disease by different mechanisms. Our previous study found three LRRK2 mutations-p.R767H, p.S885N, and p.R1441H-in Taiwanese patients with Parkinson disease.

Methods: We evaluated the functional properties of LRRK2 p.R767H, p.S885N, and p.R1441H mutations by overexpressing them in human embryonic kidney 293 and neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The common p.G2019S mutation in the kinase domain was included for comparison.

Results: In 293 cells, overexpressed p.R1441H-but not p.R767H, p.S885N, or p.G2019-increased GTP binding affinity to prolong the active state. Overexpressed p.R1441H and p.G2019S generated inclusions in 293 cells. In SK-N-SH cells, the α-synuclein was coexpressed with wild type as well as mutated p.R767H, p.S885N, p.R1441H, and p.G2019 LRRK2 proteins. Part of the perinuclear inclusions formed by p.R1441H and p.G2019S were colocalized with α-synuclein. Additionally, p.S885N and p.R1441H mutations caused reduced interaction between LRRK2 and ARHGEF7, a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor for LRRK2, whereas this interaction was well preserved in p.R767H and p.G2019S mutations.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that p.R1441H protein facilitates the formation of intracellular inclusions, compromises GTP hydrolysis by increasing its affinity for GTP, and reduces its interaction with ARHGEF7.

Keywords: ARHGEF7; GTPase; LRRK2; Parkinson disease; p.R1441H mutation.

MeSH terms

  • GTP Phosphohydrolases / metabolism*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2 / genetics*
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Parkinson Disease / genetics*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology*
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / genetics*
  • Taiwan


  • ARHGEF7 protein, human
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • LRRK2 protein, human
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases