Insulin Resistance, Microbiota, and Fat Distribution Changes by a New Model of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Rats

Diabetes. 2016 Oct;65(10):2990-3001. doi: 10.2337/db16-0039. Epub 2016 Jul 18.


Metabolic surgery improves insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes possibly because of weight loss. We performed a novel sleeve gastrectomy in rats that resects ∼80% of the glandular portion, leaving the forestomach almost intact (glandular gastrectomy [GG]) and compared subsequent metabolic remodeling with a sham operation. GG did not affect body weight, at least after 10 weeks; improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity likely through increased Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and AMPK phosphorylation; and reduced ectopic fat deposition and hepatic glycogen overaccumulation. Body adipose tissue was redistributed, with reduction of intraabdominal fat. We found a reduction of circulating ghrelin levels, increased GLP-1 plasma concentration, and remodeling of gut microbiome diversity characterized by a lower relative abundance of Ruminococcus and a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Collinsella These data suggest that at least in rat, the glandular stomach plays a central role in the improvement of insulin resistance, even if obesity persists. GG provides a new model of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blotting, Western
  • Fats / metabolism*
  • Gastrectomy
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Lactobacillus / physiology
  • Male
  • Microbiota / physiology*
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Obesity / microbiology*
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Obesity / surgery
  • Postoperative Care
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Ruminococcus / physiology


  • Blood Glucose
  • Fats
  • Insulin
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S