An Investigational RNAi Therapeutic Targeting Glycolate Oxidase Reduces Oxalate Production in Models of Primary Hyperoxaluria

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017 Feb;28(2):494-503. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2016030338. Epub 2016 Jul 18.


Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), an inherited rare disease of glyoxylate metabolism, arises from mutations in the enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. The resulting deficiency in this enzyme leads to abnormally high oxalate production resulting in calcium oxalate crystal formation and deposition in the kidney and many other tissues, with systemic oxalosis and ESRD being a common outcome. Although a small subset of patients manages the disease with vitamin B6 treatments, the only effective treatment for most is a combined liver-kidney transplant, which requires life-long immune suppression and carries significant mortality risk. In this report, we discuss the development of ALN-GO1, an investigational RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic targeting glycolate oxidase, to deplete the substrate for oxalate synthesis. Subcutaneous administration of ALN-GO1 resulted in potent, dose-dependent, and durable silencing of the mRNA encoding glycolate oxidase and increased serum glycolate concentrations in wild-type mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. ALN-GO1 also increased urinary glycolate concentrations in normal nonhuman primates and in a genetic mouse model of PH1. Notably, ALN-GO1 reduced urinary oxalate concentration up to 50% after a single dose in the genetic mouse model of PH1, and up to 98% after multiple doses in a rat model of hyperoxaluria. These data demonstrate the ability of ALN-GO1 to reduce oxalate production in preclinical models of PH1 across multiple species and provide a clear rationale for clinical trials with this compound.

Keywords: RNAi therapeutics; end-stage renal disease; oxalate; primary hyperoxaluria type I; siRNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases* / genetics
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gene Silencing
  • Hyperoxaluria, Primary / enzymology*
  • Hyperoxaluria, Primary / therapy*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Oxalates / metabolism*
  • Primates
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNAi Therapeutics*
  • Rats


  • Oxalates
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • glycollate oxidase