Can Sleeve Gastrectomy "Cure" Diabetes? Long-term Metabolic Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Ann Surg. 2016 Oct;264(4):674-81. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001857.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess long-term metabolic effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to identify predictive factors for long-term diabetes remission and relapse.

Background: LSG has become the most common bariatric operation worldwide. Its long-term metabolic effects in patients with T2DM are, however, unknown.

Methods: Outcomes of 134 patients with obesity with T2DM who underwent LSG at an academic center during 2005 to 2010 and had at least 5 years of follow-up were assessed.

Results: At a median postsurgical follow-up of 6 years (range: 5-9), a mean body mass index loss of -7.8 ± 5.1 kg/m (total weight loss: 16.8% ± 9.7%) was associated with a reduction in mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, -1.3 ± 1.8%, P < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (-37.8 ± 70.4 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and median number of diabetes medications (-1, P < 0.001). Long-term glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was seen in 63% of patients (vs 31% at baseline, P < 0.001), diabetes remission (HbA1c <6.5% off medications) in 26%, complete remission (HbA1c <6% off medications) in 11%, and "cure" (continuous complete remission for ≥5 years) was achieved in 3%. Long-term relapse of T2DM after initial remission occurred in 44%. Among patients with relapse, 67% maintained glycemic control (HbA1c <7%). On adjusted analysis, taking 2 or more diabetes medications at baseline predicted less long-term remission (odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.55, P = 0.002) and more relapse of T2DM (odds ratio 8.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.40-49.20, P = 0.02). Significant improvement in triglycerides (-53.7 ± 116.4 mg/dL, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (8.2 ± 12.9 mg/dL, P < 0.001), systolic (-8.9 ± 18.7 mmHg, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (-2.6 ± 14.5 mmHg, P = 0.04), and cardiovascular risk (13% relative reduction, P < 0.001) was observed.

Conclusions: LSG can significantly improve cardiometabolic risk factors including glycemic status in T2DM. Long-term complete remission and "cure" of T2DM, however, occur infrequently.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bariatric Surgery*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrectomy*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Morbid / complications
  • Obesity, Morbid / metabolism
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery*
  • Remission Induction
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight Loss

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A