Nutritional Status Associated to Skipping Breakfast in Brazilian Health Service Patients

Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;69(1):31-40. doi: 10.1159/000447363. Epub 2016 Jul 20.


Recent studies show that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, this study evaluated 400 patients from the Brazilian health service who had their nutritional status defined based on the body mass index and were classified as physically active or insufficient active. The energy intake and macronutrients was also assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall where the association of overweight/obesity with the investigated variables was evaluated using chi-square, Student's t test and multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). The main results showed that more than half of the studied population have the habit of omitting breakfast (55.8%), and among those, 81.2% were overweight/obese (p < 0.0001). Almost three-fourths of these individuals consumed no more than 4 meals a day (73.0%), and regarding this meal frequency/day, 78.8% of the individuals who reported having 4 meals or less a day were overweight/obese compared with 57.8% who reported as having 5-6 meals/day (p < 0.0001). The individuals who reported to omit breakfast had a higher chance of being overweight compared with those who had this habit (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.60) and the chance of the physically insufficient active individuals to be overweight/obese was 2.9 times higher when compared to the active individuals (p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that regular breakfast consumption may decrease overweight and obesity risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Brazil
  • Breakfast* / physiology
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Energy Intake*
  • Exercise*
  • Feeding Behavior* / physiology
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Young Adult