Enhanced HDL Functionality in Small HDL Species Produced Upon Remodeling of HDL by Reconstituted HDL, CSL112: Effects on Cholesterol Efflux, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Activity

Circ Res. 2016 Sep 2;119(6):751-63. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308685. Epub 2016 Jul 19.


Rationale: CSL112, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine, is known to cause a dramatic rise in small high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Objective: To explore the mechanisms by which the formation of small HDL particles is induced by CSL112.

Methods and results: Infusion of CSL112 into humans caused elevation of 2 small diameter HDL fractions and 1 large diameter fraction. Ex vivo studies showed that this remodeling does not depend on lipid transfer proteins or lipases. Rather, interaction of CSL112 with purified HDL spontaneously gave rise to 3 HDL species: a large, spherical species composed of apoA-I from native HDL and CSL112; a small, disc-shaped species composed of apoA-I from CSL112, but smaller because of the loss of phospholipids; and the smallest species, lipid-poor apoA-I composed of apoA-I from HDL and CSL112. Time-course studies suggest that remodeling occurs by an initial fusion of CSL112 with HDL and subsequent fission leading to the smaller forms. Functional studies showed that ATP-binding cassette transporter 1-dependent cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory effects in whole blood were carried by the 2 small species with little activity in the large species. In contrast, the ability to inactivate lipid hydroperoxides in oxidized low-density lipoprotein was carried predominantly by the 2 largest species and was low in lipid-poor apoA-I.

Conclusions: We have described a mechanism for the formation of small, highly functional HDL species involving spontaneous fusion of discoidal HDL with spherical HDL and subsequent fission. Similar remodeling is likely to occur during the life cycle of apoA-I in vivo.

Keywords: antioxidant; apolipoprotein A-I; cholesterol; high-density lipoproteins; inflammation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cholesterol / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / administration & dosage
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • CSL112
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Cholesterol