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Case Reports
. 2016 Dec;31(6):1435-1443.
doi: 10.1007/s11011-016-9869-z. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Pyridoxine-dependent Epilepsy: Report on Three Families With Neuropathology

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Case Reports

Pyridoxine-dependent Epilepsy: Report on Three Families With Neuropathology

Florent Marguet et al. Metab Brain Dis. .

Abstract

Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a pharmacoresistant epileptogenic encephalopathy controlled by pyridoxine supplementation at pharmacological doses. Despite supplementation, the long-term outcome is often poor possibly because of recurrent seizures and developmental structural brain abnormalities. We report on five patients with PDE from three unrelated families. The diagnosis was confirmed by ALDH7A1 sequencing, which allowed for the characterization of two homozygous variations [NM_001182.3:c.1279G > C - p.(Glu427Gln) and c.834G > A - p.(Val278Val)]. Brain autopsy was conducted for one untreated patient with molecularly confirmed antiquitin deficiency. Macroscopic and histological examination revealed a combination of lesions resulting from recurrent seizures and consisting of extensive areas of cortical necrosis, gliosis, and hippocampic sclerosis. The examination also revealed developmental abnormalities including corpus callosum dysgenesis and corticospinal pathfinding anomalies. This case is the second to be reported in the literature, and our findings show evidence that antiquitin is required for normal brain development and functioning. Despite prophylactic prenatal pyridoxine supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy in one of the three families and sustained pyridoxine treatment in three living patients, the clinical outcome remained poor with delayed acquisition of neurocognitive skills. Combined therapy (pyridoxine/arginine supplementation and lysine-restricted diet) should be considered early in the course of the disease for a better long-term outcome. Enhanced knowledge of PDE features is required to improve treatment strategies.

Keywords: Antiquitin; Long-term outcome; Molecular analyses; Neuropathology; Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

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