A coordinated balance between the positive and negative regulation of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate inflammatory responses is required to ensure the most favorable outcome for the host. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of innate sensors and downstream signaling molecules influence their activity and function by inducing their covalent linkage to new functional groups. PTMs including phosphorylation and polyubiquitination have been shown to potently regulate innate inflammatory responses through the activation, cellular translocation, and interaction of innate receptors, adaptors, and downstream signaling molecules in response to infectious and dangerous signals. Other PTMs such as methylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and succinylation are increasingly implicated in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PTMs in controlling PRR-triggered innate immunity and inflammatory responses. The emerging roles of PTMs in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of infectious and inflammatory immune diseases are also discussed.
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