Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Filters applied. Clear all
. 2016 May 12;2(5):e00111.
doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00111. eCollection 2016 May.

Continuous Intake of the Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus Obliquus) Aqueous Extract Suppresses Cancer Progression and Maintains Body Temperature in Mice

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Continuous Intake of the Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus Obliquus) Aqueous Extract Suppresses Cancer Progression and Maintains Body Temperature in Mice

Satoru Arata et al. Heliyon. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Aims: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore, effective measures for cancer prevention and treatment are in constant demand. The extracts of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) demonstrate potent anti-tumor activities and have been used to treat cancer in several countries; however, the actual effect and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of continuous intake of aqueous extract from I. obliquus on tumor suppression.

Main methods: Anticancer activity of the I. obliquus extract was examined in mouse models of Lewis lung carcinoma growth and spontaneous metastasis after 3 weeks of continuous extract intake at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day, which corresponded to that ingested daily with Chaga infusion in Japan.

Key findings: The extract of I. obliquus caused significant tumor suppressive effects in both models. Thus, in tumor-bearing mice, 60% tumor reduction was observed, while in metastatic mice, the number of nodules decreased by 25% compared to the control group. Moreover, I. obliquus extract-treated mice demonstrated the increase in tumor agglomeration and inhibition of vascularization. Interestingly, I. obliquus intake decreased body weight in middle-aged mice and increased body temperature in response to light-dark switching in mature adult mice. Furthermore, I. obliquus prevented temperature drop in mice after tumor implantation.

Significance: Our findings suggest that the I. obliquus extract could be used as a natural remedy for cancer suppression by promoting energy metabolism.

Keywords: Biochemistry; Biological sciences.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The intake of the I. obliquus extract promoted body weight loss in middle-aged mice. Middle-aged and mature adult mice received water without (control) or with the I. obliquus extract for the indicated times and were analyzed for body weight. (A) Body weight of middle-aged mice (weight at day 0: 37.3 ± 3.5 g and 37.9 ± 5.1 g for the water and I. obliquus group, respectively; n = 4–5). (B) Amount of water drunk by middle-aged mice. (C) Body weight of mature adult mice (weight at day 0: 22.7 ± 1.8 g and 23.3 ± 2.1 g for the water and I. obliquus group, respectively; n = 8–9). (D) Amount of water drunk by mature adult mice. The data were normalized to the body weight at day 0 and expressed as the mean ± SD; *P < 0.05.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
The intake of the I. obliquus extract suppressed tumor development in mice implanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Mice drinking water with or without the I. obliquus aqueous extract were injected 3LL cells subcutaneously in the right flanks and analyzed for tumor size. (A) Representative images of carcinomas. (B) Quantification of tumor size at the indicated times after 3LL cell implantation. (C) The weight of solid tumors at day 16 after 3LL cell implantation. Each dot represents a single mouse and lines show mean values (n = 8 per group; *P < 0.05).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
I. obliquus extract caused tumor agglomeration and suppressed vascularization. 3LL cells were injected subcutaneously at the left abdomen of mice drinking water with or without the I. obliquus aqueous and tumors were analyzed by histology 7 days after cells implantation. (A) HE staining. (B) Immunostaining for CD31.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
I. obliquus extract suppressed metastasis in mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Mice drinking water with or without the I. obliquus aqueous extract received intravenous injection of 3LL cells. (A) Representative stereomicroscopic images of fixed mouse lungs containing carcinoma nodules. Arrowheads mark 3LL nodules on the lung. (B) The number of metastatic nodules counted under a stereomicroscope. Each dot represents a single mouse and lines show mean values (n = 4–6 per group). (C) Representative CT images of mouse lungs containing carcinoma nodules. Arrowheads mark 3LL nodules visible as dents on the lung. (D) The number of nodules measured in CT images of the lungs extracted at day 9 after cancer cell injection. Each dot represents a single mouse and lines show mean values (n = 4–5 per group; *P < 0.05).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
The intake of the I. obliquus extract agglomerated tumor cells in the mouse model of spontaneous metastasis. Mice drinking water with or without the I. obliquus aqueous extract received intravenous injection of 3LL cells. Representative HE-stained images of lung sections 2 weeks after cancer cell injection are shown.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Continuous intake of the I. obliquus extract prevented body temperature decrease in mice implanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. (A) Average body temperature of mice measured from week 2 to 3 after the intake of drinking water without or with the aqueous extract of I. obliquus. (B, C) Average body temperature of mice receiving water (B) or I. obliquus extract (C) measured 1 week before (0 week), and 1 week and 2 weeks after cancer cell injection. The data are expressed as the mean (n = 3 per group); *P < 0.05 versus water (A) or 0 week (B, C).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 3 articles

References

    1. Stewart B.W., Wild C.P. World Health Organization; 2014. World Cancer Report 2014 (International Agency for Research on Cancer)
    1. Geneau R., Stuckler D., Stachenko S., McKee M., Ebrahim S., Basu S. Raising the priority of preventing chronic diseases: a political process. Lancet. 2010;376:1689–1698. - PubMed
    1. Khandekar M.J., Cohen P., Spiegelman B.M. Molecular mechanisms of cancer development in obesity. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2011;11:886–895. - PubMed
    1. Cao L., During M.J. What is the brain-cancer connection? Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2012;35:331–345. - PubMed
    1. Cao L., Liu X., Lin E.J., Wang C., Choi E.Y., Riban V. Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte BDNF/leptin axis causes cancer remission and inhibition. Cell. 2010;142:52–64. - PMC - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback