Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Brief Pain Inventory in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2016:5624261. doi: 10.1155/2016/5624261. Epub 2016 Jun 19.


Background and Aims. No patient-reported outcome measures targeting pain have yet been validated for use in IBD patients. Consequently, the aim of this study was to test the psychometrical properties of the brief pain inventory (BPI) in an outpatient population with IBD. Methods. Participants were recruited from nine hospitals in the southeastern and western parts of Norway. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected, and participants completed the BPI, as well as the Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Results. In total, 410 patients were included. The BPI displayed high correlations with the bodily pain dimension of the SF-36, as well as moderate correlations with disease activity indices. The BPI also displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91, regardless of diagnosis) and good to excellent test-retest values (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.84-0.90 and Kappa values > .70). In UC, calculation of responsiveness revealed that only BPI interference in patients reporting improvement reached the threshold of 0.2. In CD, Cohen's d ranged from 0.26 to 0.68. Conclusions. The BPI may serve as an important supplement in patient-reported outcome measurement in IBD. There is need to confirm responsiveness in future studies. Moreover, responsiveness should ideally be investigated using changes in objective markers of inflammation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / complications
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / psychology*
  • Crohn Disease / complications
  • Crohn Disease / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain / psychology*
  • Pain Measurement / methods*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult