Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 19;17(7):1156. doi: 10.3390/ijms17071156.


Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: HPLC-DAD; IL-8; NF-κB; gastric inflammation; polyphenols; raisins.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Stomach / drug effects*
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Interleukin-8
  • Plant Extracts