Factors that Influence the Immunological Adjuvant Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum PC1 on Specific Immune Responses in Mice to Orally Administered Antigens

Vaccines (Basel). 2016 Jul 19;4(3):24. doi: 10.3390/vaccines4030024.


This study examined the influences of the dosage of the adjuvant, the nature of the antigen and the host genetics on the capacity of L. fermentum PC1 (PC1) to function as an oral adjuvant. BALB/c and DBA/1 mice were vaccinated with either ovalbumin (OVA) or Salmonella Typhimurium on days 0 and 14, Mice were also dosed with the PC1 (10⁸ CFU or 10(11) CFU per dose per mouse) with the antigens (days 0 and 14) and alone (days -1 and 13). The higher PC1 dose elicited a greater specific serum IgG2a response than IgG1 for both antigens and mice strains, indicating a Th1-biased humoral immune response. The Th1 bias was also observed at the cellular level with greater specific IFN-γ levels than IL-4 and IL-10 with both antigen types and mouse strains. With the particulate antigen, the lower dose of PC1 elicited a Th1 bias at the cellular level, but a balanced Th1/Th2 response at the systemic humoral level. With the soluble antigen, a strong Th1-biased response occurred at the cellular level while the systemic humoral response was Th2-biased. In conclusion, PC1 at the higher dose was an excellent Th1 adjuvant, which was unaffected by the nature of the antigen or the host's genetic background.

Keywords: L. fermentum PC1; OVA; S. Typhimurium; adjuvant; lactobacillus; oral adjuvant.