Most research on fluid biomarkers for central nervous system (CNS) disorders has so far been performed using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as the biomarker source. CSF has the advantage of being closer to the brain than serum or plasma with a relative enrichment of CNS-specific proteins that are present at very low concentrations in the blood and thus difficult to reliably quantify using standard immunochemical technologies. Recent technical breakthroughs in the field of ultrasensitive assays have started to change this. Here, we review the most established ultrasensitive quantitative technologies that are currently available to general biomarker laboratories and discuss their use in research on biomarkers for CNS disorders.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Blood; Central nervous system; Plasma; Serum; Ultrasensitive.