Objectives: To create a prediction model identifying futile outcome in ALPPS (Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy) before stage 1 and stage 2 surgery.
Background: ALPPS is a 2-stage hepatectomy, which incorporates parenchymal transection at stage 1 enabling resection of extensive liver tumors. One of the major criticisms of ALPPS is the associated high mortality rate up to 20%.
Methods: Using the International ALPPS Registry, a risk analysis for futile outcome (defined as 90-day or in-hospital mortality) was performed. Futility was modeled using multivariate regression analysis and a futility risk score formula was computed on the basis of the relative size of logistic model regression coefficients.
Results: Among 528 ALPPS patients from 38 centers, a futile outcome was observed in 47 patients (9%). The pre-stage 1 model included age 67 years or older [odds ratio (OR) = 5.7], and tumor entity (OR = 3.8 for biliary tumors) as independent predictors of futility from multivariate analysis. For the pre-stage 1 model scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were associated with futile risk of 2.7%, 4.9%, 8.6%, 15%, 24%, and 37%. The pre-stage 2 model included major complications (grade ≥ 3b) after stage 1 (OR = 3.4), serum bilirubin (OR = 4.4), serum creatinine (OR = 5.4), and cumulative pre-stage 1 risk score (OR = 1.9). The model predicted futility risk of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% for patients with scores of 3.9, 4.7, 5.5, and 6.9, respectively.
Conclusions: Both models have an excellent prediction to assess the individual risk of futile outcome after ALPPS surgery and can be used to avoid futile use of ALPPS.